Chelmsford is a city in the City of Chelmsford district in the county of Essex. It is the county town of Essex and one of three cities in the county, along with Southend-on-Sea and Colchester. It is located 30 miles north-east of London at Charing Cross and 22 miles south-west of Colchester. The population of the urban area was 111,511 in the 2011 Census, while the wider district has 168,310.
Chelmsford’s population consists of a large number of City and Docklands commuters, attracted by the 30–35-minute railway journey into Central London via the Great Eastern Main Line.
Before 1199, there were settlements nearby from ancient times. The remains of a Neolithic and a late Bronze Age settlement have been found in the Springfield suburb, and the town was occupied by the Romans. A Roman fort was built in AD 60, and a civilian town grew up around it. The town was given the name of Caesaromagus (Caesar’s field or Caesar’s marketplace), although the reason for it being given the great honour of bearing the Imperial prefix is now unclear – possibly as a failed ‘planned town’ provincial capital to replace Londinium or Camulodunum. The remains of a mansio, a combination post office, civic centre and hotel, lie beneath the streets of modern Moulsham, and the ruins of an octagonal temple are located beneath the Odeon roundabout.
Chelmsford has a wide range of educational institutions. Higher education in the city is provided at one campus of Anglia Ruskin University (formerly called Anglia Polytechnic) and Writtle University College. Chelmsford College is the main provider of further education in the city.
Chelmsford has three professional sports teams:
- Chelmsford City FC
- Chelmsford Chieftains
- Essex County Cricket Club
Chelmsford City Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Chelmsford, Essex, England. Currently members of the National League South, the sixth tier of English football, they play at the Melbourne Stadium.
The Chelmsford Chieftains are an Ice Hockey team based in Chelmsford, Essex that are currently playing in the NIHL South Division 1. Since the team was founded in 1987, the Chieftains have played their home games at the Riverside Ice and Leisure Centre.
Essex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Essex.
Chelmsford railway station is on the Great Eastern Main Line in the East of England, serving the city of Chelmsford, Essex. It is 29 miles 60 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between
Ingatestone to the west and Hatfield Peverel to the east.
The station is currently operated by Greater Anglia, who also operate all trains serving it, as part of the East Anglia franchise. Westbound trains terminate at Liverpool Street and eastbound trains run to a number of destinations including Braintree, Clacton-on-Sea, Colchester Town, Ipswich and Norwich.
Chelmsford is known as the birthplace of radio, thanks to its connection with Guglielmo Marconi who opened the world’s first wireless factory here in 1899.